Mudumalai is an ideal home to several endangered and vulnerable species nestling Indian elephant, Bengal Tiger, Gaur and Indian Leopard. There is a high diversity of animal life in the sanctuary with about 50 species of fishes, 21 species of amphibians, 34 species of reptiles, 227 species of birds and 55 species of mammals. Mammal diversity is higher in the dry deciduous and dry thorn forests than in the other habitats. Thirteen percent of all mammal species in India are present in Mudumalai wildlife sanctuary.
There are at least 266 species of birds in the sanctuary, including critically endangered Indian White-rumped Vulture and long-billed vulture.Around 8 percent of the bird species in India can be found in Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary. Among the counts of 227 bird species in the area, 110 species are insectivores, 62 are carnivores, 23 species are fishivores, 12 species are omnivores and 20 species are grainivores.